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     lgDg cfo ePsf ls;fg, dhb'/, HofdLx?nfO{ Pstfa4 u/L plgx? ;+u /x]sf] ;fgf]–;fgf] k"FhL Pslqt u/]df 7'nf] k"FhLsf] lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsG5 / PSnf PSn} ug{ g;lsg] sfdx? w]/} hgf ldn]/ ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]/ t'n;Lk'/ gu/kflnsfdf ;fdflhs If]qdf  lqmofl;n JolQmx?sf] tTk/tfdf @)^$ >fj0f !# ut]sf lbg t'n;Lk'/df klxnf] k|f/lDes e]nfsf] cfof]hgf u/Lof] . ;f] e]nfsf] cWoIftf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnn] ug'{ ePsf] lyof] eg] e]nfdf o; If]qsf dlxnf k'?if u/L @( hgfsf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . e]nfn] -s_ ;xsf/L ;+:yf vf]Ng] -v_ ;+:yfsf] gfd xfd|f] kx'Fr ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yf lnld6]8 /fVg] -u_ ;+:yfsf] 7]ufgf t'n;Lk'/ gu/kflnsf jf8f g+= %, bfË /fVg] -3_ ;+:yfsf p2]Zox? -ª_ ;+:yfn] ug]{ sfo{x? -r_ ;+:yfsf] sfo{ If]q -5_ z]o/ z'Ns / k|j]z z'Ns -h_ ;+:yfsf] sfo{of]hgf / ljlgod tof/ ug]{ ;DaGwdf nufotsf lg0fo{x? ug'{sf ;fy} xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftfdf tby{ ;ldlt ;d]tsf] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . h;sf] pkfWoIfdf b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L -h};L_, ;lrj x]d/fh sfnfyf]sL, sf]iffWoIf df]xg l;+x jnL / ;b:ox?df tf/f axfb'/ yfkf, 3gZofd vgfn / lvdf e08f/L /xg' ePsf] lyof] .

      ldlt @)^$ >fj0f !% ut]sf lbg tby{ ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hffnsf] cWoIftfdf bf]>f] k|f/lDes e]nf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . e]nfn] lvdfgGb vfgfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf lhjg e08f/L / b]j/fh e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] n]vf ;ldltsf] rog u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L d:of}bf ljlgod, d:of}bf sfo{of]hgf kfl/t ug'{sf ;fy} ;+:yf btf{sf nfuL xl/ k|;fb l/hfn, x]d/fh sfnfyf]sL / df]xg l;+x jnL nfO{ clwsf/ k|Tofhf]g ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . o;/L ;Dk'0f{ k|lqmof k'/f u/L l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{no bfËsf tfTsflng ;xsf/L clws[t lji0f' kf}8]nn] ljlgod, sfo{of]hgf tyf cGo sfuhftx?df k|dfl0ft u/] kl5 ldlt @)^$ >fj0f #! ut] ljlwjt ?kdf ;+:yf btf{ ePsf] lyof] . ;+:yf btf{ ubf{ dlxnf * hgf / k'?if !& hgf u/L hDdf @% hgf ;+:yfks ;b:ox? /xg' ePsf] lyof] . ;+:yf btf{ eP kl5 ldlt @)^$ efb| @@ ut] j;]sf] tby{ ;+rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] e/t e08f/L, b'uf{ k|;fb vgfn / v'lj/fd e08f/L /x]sf] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] rog u/]sf] lyof] .

       ldlt @)^$ cflZjg !( ut]sf lbg tby{ ;+rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;lrj x]d/fh sfnfyf]sLsf] ;+rfng / h]i7 ;b:o dfg axfb'/ u'?Ësf] k|d'v cfltTYotf / pb\3f6gdf k|f/lDes ;fwf/0f ;ef z'? ePsf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efdf e/t e08f/L, z'qm/fh e08f/L, dlg/fd vgfn, gf/fo0f e08f/L, sdnf lh=;L=nufotn] dGtAo /fVg' ePsf] lyof] eg] pkfWoIf b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L -h}l;_n] :jfut ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . k|f/lDes ;fwf/0f ;efn] xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftfdf b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L -h};L_ pkfWoIf,x]d/fh sfnfyf]sL ;lrj, df]xg l;+x jnL sf]iffWoIf / lvdf e08f/L, lvdfgGb vgfn, hfu]Zj/ e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] ;+rfns ;ldltsf] rog u/]sf] lyof] . To;}
u/L 3gZofd vgfn ;+of]hs / dfg axfb'/ u'?Ë, hLjg e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] n]vf ;ldltsf] ;d]t rog u/]sf] lyof] . ;fy} b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L -h};L_ ;+of]hs, hfu]Zj/ e08f/L ;b:o / b]j/fh e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] Pu|f]e]6 ;+rfng pk–;ldltsf] u7g u/]sf] lyof] . of] ;fwf/0f ;efn] g} jrt tyf C0f sf/f]jf/, ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk / Pu|f]e]6 ;+rfng ug]{ lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] .

   ldlt @)^$ d+l;/ * ut] ;DkGg ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] jrt tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/ )^$ k'if ! ut] b]lv z? ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] eg] ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDksf] cWoog / btf{ k|lqmof cufl8 a9fpg] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . ;f]lx a}7sn] df]xg l;+x jnL ;+of]hs, lvdfgGb vgfn / vu k|;fb kf]v|]n ;b:o /x]sf] jrt tyf C0f pk–;ldlt / xl/ k|;fb l/hfn ;+of]hs, e/t e08f/L / x]d/fh sfnfyf]sL ;b:o /x]sf] ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk ;+rfng pk–;ldlt u7g u/]sf] lyof] . eg] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] k'gMu7g u/L jl/i7 ;Nnfxsf/df lai0f' kf}8]n / e/t e08f/L ,z'qm/fh e08f/LnfO{ ;Nnfxsf/df /fVg] lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L @)^$ d+l;/ @! ut] ;DkGg ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkKksf nfuL ;Nofg /f]8df % sÝf hUuf lnhdf lng], ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yf ;+u ;Demf]tf nufot cfjZos ;Dk'0f{ sfd ug{sf nfuL xl/ k|;fb l/hfn / z'qm/fh e08f/LnfO{ clVtof/L lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . o;/L ;+:yfn] ldlt @)^$ df3 !! ut] g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8af6 clws[t O{Gwg laqm]tfsf] lgo"StL kfPsf] lyof] . To:t} @)^$ kmfu'g !^ ut]sf] a}7sn] ;~rfns ;ldltsf ;b:o lvdf e08f/Ln] /flhgfdf lbP kl5 vfln x'g cfPsf] l/Qm /x]sf] ;b:o kbdf l8NnL/fh e08f/LnfO{ lgo"lQm u/]sf] lyof] . k]6«f]nkDksf] ef}lts lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg eO{;s] kl5 ldlt @)^% >fj0f #) ut]sf lbg ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDksf] pb\3f6g\ sfo{qmd ;DkGg u/Lof] . ;+:yfsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, z'qm/fh e08f/Lsf] ;~rfng, b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L-h};L+_ n] :jfut ug'{ ePsf] pb\3f6g sfo+qmdsf] k|d'v cltly t'n;Lk'/ pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf cWoIf lbk]Gb| s'df/ vqL /xg' ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf sdn ax'p2]Zo ;xsf/L ;+:yf lnld6]8sf cWoIf t]h axfb'/ sfsL{, hg;]jf jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf lnld6]8sf cWoIf z];'/fd e08f/L nufotn] z'esfdgf dGtJo /fVg' ePsf] lyof] .

        ldlt @)^% efb| !$ ut]sf lbg z]o/ ;b:ox?sf] e]nf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftfdf ;DkGg eof] . e]nfn] k]6«f]nkDk lgdf{0f ubf{ ePsf] vr{ cfDbfgL cg'df]bg / k]6«f]nkDk ;~rfng lgltsf ;DaGwdf 5nkmn / lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L @)^% d+l;/ !$ ut]sf lbg ;+:yfsf] k|yd ;fwf/0f ;ef ;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfn, ;lrj x]d/fh sfnfyf]sLsf] ;~rfng, pkfWoIf b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L-h};L_ sf] :jfutaf6 z'? ePsf] k|yd ;fwf/0f ;efsf k|d'v cltly l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{nosf ;xsf/L lgl/Ifs hfu]Zj/ g]kfnL /xg' ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf e/t e08f/L, >Ldlt O{Gb' zdf{, z];'/fd e08f/L nufotn] z'esfdgf dGtJo lbg' ePsf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efsf] aGbzqdf ;~rfns ;ldltsf] tkm{af6 cWoIfn] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lj36gsf] 3f]if0ff ug'{ eP kl5 9'08L/fh vgfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf e/t e08f/L / 3gZofd vgfn /x]sf] ltg ;b:oLo lgjf{rg ;ldltsf] u7g ul/Psf] lyof] . lgjf{rg ;ldltn] lgjf{rg ;DjlGw ;Dk'0f{ k|lqmof k'/f u/L ;s] kl5 xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftfdf v'lj/fd e08f/L pkfWoIf,lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L= ;lrj, df]xg l;+x jnL sf]iffWoIf / sdnf lh=;L=, lvdfgGb vgfn, lhjg e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] ;~rfns ;ldlt / x]d /fh sfnfyf]sL ;+of]hs, ;'o{ k|;fb zdf{, jf;'b]j e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] n]vf ;ldltsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg ePsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyof] . To:t} ;fwf/0f ;efn] jrt tyf C0f lglt, ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk ;+rfng lglt / sd{rf/L k|;f;g lgodfjnL kfl/t u¥of] eg] /]l8of] kl/of]hgf ;~rfng ug]{ lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efsf] nuTt} kl5 a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] e/t e08f/L, lai0f' kf}8]n / r]t axfb'/ /fx' /x]sf] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] u7g u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L @)^% df3 @@ ut]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] btf{ k|lqmof cuf8L a9fpgsf nfuL ;+of]hs xl/ k|;fb l/hfn / ;b:o e/t e08f/L, vu]Gb| kf]v|]n,df]xg l;+x jnL /x]sf] /]l8of] ;+rfng pk–;ldlt u7g u/L sfd cuf8L a9fpg] lg0fo{ u¥of] / ldlt @)^% kmfu'g ^ ut] /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr ;~rfngsf] O{hfht–kq ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnon] ;+:yfnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] .

       ldlt @)^^ efb| % ut] ;+:yfsf] bf]>f] aflif{s ;fwf/0f ;ef ;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;lrj lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=sf] ;~rfng,pkfWoIf v'lj/fd e08f/Lsf] :jfut / t'n;Lk'/ pBf]u afl0fHo ;+3sf al/i7 pkfWoIf vu]Gb| k|;fb kf]v|]nsf] k|d'v cfltTYotfdf z'? ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmdnfO{ l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{nosf ;xsf/L lgl/Ifs r]tnfn Gof}kfg], sdn ax'Fp2]Zo ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf t]h axfb'/ sfsL{, ;+:yfsf ;Nnfxsf/ e/t e08f/L, hg;]jf jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yf ln=sf cWoIf z];'/fd e08f/L nufotn] z'esfdgf JoSt ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efn] n]vf ;ldltsf] ;+of]hsdf ;'o{ k|;fb zdf{ / ;b:ox?df jf;'b]j e08f/L / lrGtfdl0f kf]v|]nnfO{ jfsL cjlwsf nfuL k'gM lgjf{rg u/]sf] lyof] . ;fy} /]l8of] kl/of]hgf ;d]t cuf8L a9fpg] lg0fo{ ul/Psf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efsf] nuTt} kl5 j;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] k'gM u7g u/]sf] lyof] . h;df e/t e08f/L, lai0f' kf}8]n / x]d/fh cfrfo{nfO{ /fVg] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L ;f]lx a}7sn] b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L ;+of]hs / lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=, df]xg l;+x jnL ;b:o /x]sf] k]6«f]nkDk ;+rfng pk–;ldltsf] ;d]t u7g u/]sf] lyof] . To:t} @)^^ k'if !) / !! ut] ;+:yfsf sl/a ^) hgf z]o/ ;b:ox? ;xefuL /x]sf] cwf/e't ;xsf/L lzIff tflndsf] ;~rfng u/LPsf] lyof] h;sf] k|lzIfsx?df ;xsf/L clws[t gf/fo0f k|;fb >]i7, z'qm/fh e08f/L / lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=/xg' ePsf] lyof] .++ ;+:yfn] ldlt @)^^ r}q !( ut] >Lufp uf=lj=;=df ljdnf of]uLsf] gfddf /x]sf] * sÝf hUuf vl/b u¥of] eg] ldlt @)^& a};fv !) ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] /]l8of] kl/of]hgf ;~rfngsf nfuL tTsfn ef}lts k'jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ug]{ / s[lif ljsf; a}+ssf] gfddf /x]sf] hUuf lnhdf lng] lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] eg] /]l8of] ;~rfngsf] sfo{ cufl8 a9fpg xl/ k|;fb l/hfn ;+of]hs / e/t e08f/L, O{Zj/L e08f/L, df]xg l;+x jnL / lai0f' s]=;L= ;b:o /x]sf] /]l8of]sf] k'jf{wf/ lgdf{0f pk–;ldltsf] u7g ul/of] / sf7df08f} :yLt ;'ZdLt O{G6/g]Zgn ;+u /]l8of] pks/0f vl/bsf nfuL ;Demf}tf ug{ xl/ l/hfn, O{Zj/L e08f/L, / df]xg l;+x jnLnfO{ lhDdf lbg] Pj+d :6'l8of] lgdf{0fsf nfuL O{Zj/L e08f/LnfO{ lhDdf lbg] lg0f{osf ;fy} ? #) nfvsf] ah]6 ;d]t ljlgof]hg ug]{ lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] .

    ldlt @)^& h]7 @@ ut] t'n;Lk'/ pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf] ;efxndf /]l8of] kl/of]hgfsf laifodf 5nkmn ug{ sfo{qmlds e]nf ;+:yfsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;lrj lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=sf] ;~rfngdf z'? ePsf] lyof] . e]nfdf O{Zj/L k|;fb e08f/L, e/t e08f/L, z'qm/fh e08f/L nufotn] af]Ng' ePsf] lyof] . e]nfn] /]l8of] kl/of]hgf ;~rfngsf nfuL z]o/ ;b:ox? af6} /sd h'6fpg] / cfjZos hgzlQmsf] Joa:yf ug{ kqsf/Ltf tflndsf] Joa:yf ug]{ lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] / ;f]sf] Joa:yfkgsf nfuL O{Zj/L k|;fb e08f/L ;+of]hs / lai0f' s]=;L=,;'/]z ;'dg 8fFuL ;b:o /x]sf] tflnd Joj:yfkg pk–;ldltsf] u7g u/L lhDdf tf]Sg] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . o;/L )^& efb| % ut] /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr *( d]ufxh{sf] kl/If0f k|;f/0f z'? eof] eg] lgoldt k|;f/0fsf] cg'dlt ;+:yfn] ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno af6 ldlt @)^& c;f}h !$ ut] k|fKt u/]sf] lyof] . o;} u/L )^& c;f}h #! ut] b;}sf] l6sfsf] lbg ;fFem ^M#) jh] b]lv tfTsflng ;dfrf/ k|d'v O{Zj/L k|;fb e08f/Ln] /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fraf6 xfn vj/ z'? ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . @)^& sflt{s !& ut] /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr *( d]ufxh{sf] tfTsflng ;"\rgf tyf ;~rf/ dlGq z+s/ kf]v|]nsf] k|d'v cfltTYotfdf ljlwjt pb\3f6g sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, lai0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=/ z'qm/fh e08f/Ln] ;~rfng ug'{ ePsf] sfo{qmddf sdnf lh=;L=n] :jfut ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . pb\3f6g sfo{qmddf lalzi6 cltly ;ef;b tyf /fli6«o hgdf]rf{sf al/i7 s]lGb|o pkfWoIf /ZdL/fh g]kfnL / ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;xsf/L sfof{no tyf ;+3÷;+:yfsf k|d'v tyf k|ltlglwx?n] z'esfdgf dGtJo /fVg' ePsf] lyof] . /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'FrnfO{ k|j4g ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]/ ;~rfns ;ldltsf] ldlt @)^& sflt{s @^ ut]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ @)^& d+l;/ @! ut] sf7df08f}sf] ko{6g jf]8{sf] ;efxndf æg]kfn ko{6g aif{ @)!! / ko{6g kj{4g tyf ljsf;df /fKtL c~rnsf] :yfg,klxrfg, ;Defjgf / r'gf}tLÆ laifos cGt{lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmd ;+rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;+:yfsf tfTsflng Joj:yfks z'qm/fh e08f/Lsf] ;~rfng df z'? ePsf] pQm pQm sfo{qmddf ljleGg /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx?, /fKtL c~rnaf6 ljleGg ;dodf k|ltlglwTj u/]sf ;f+;b tyf dGqLx?, ko{6g ljsf; ;+u ;/f]sf/ /fVg] ljleGg JolQmTjx? nufotn] dGtJo /fVg' ePsf] lyof] . ;f] sfo{qmddf sf7df08f}df /x]sf ljleGg If]qdf lqmofl;n s/Lj @)) hgf JolQmTjx?sf] pkl:ylt /x]sf] lyof] . ;fy} ;f]lx ;+fem sf7df08f} d} lj1fkg Ph]G;Lx?, ldl8of k|d'vx? / cGo lalzi6 JolQmx?sf] pkl:yltdf kl/rofTds sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . o;} u/L ldlt @)^& k'; !) ut] ;+:Yffsf] t]>f] afli{fs ;fwf/0f ;ef ;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;lrj lji0f' axfb'/ s]=;L=sf] ;~rfng / :yflgo ljsf; clwsf/L ;'o{ sfGt emfFsf] k|d'v cfltTYodf z'/ ePsf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efdf g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf k'j{ s]lGb|o pkfWoIf ljk'n kf]v|]n, lkm|8d kmf]/d g]kfnsf ;lrj ;gt s'df/ cfrfo{, sdn ax'p2]Zo ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf t]h axfb'/ sfsL{ hg;]jf jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf b'uf{ k|;fb e08f/L nufotn] z'esfdgf dGtJo /fVg' ePsf] lyof] .

      ldlt @)^* >fj0f !! ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] ;+:yf 4f/f ;~rflnt ;a} kl/of]hgfx?df sfo{/t sd{rf/L kb tyf tnj :s]nsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ug{sfnfuL e/t e08f/Lsf] ;+of]hsTjdf hLjg e08f/L / ;'o{ k|;fb zdf{ ;b:o /x]sf] ltg ;b:oLo kb lgwf{/0f pk–;ldltsf] u7g u/]sf] lyof] ;f] ;ldltn] j'emfPsf] k|ltj]bgnfO{ )^* efb| @ ut]sf] a}7sn] kfl/t ug'{sf ;fy} cfjZostf cg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L ldlt @)^* >fj0f @# ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] ;+:yf :yfkgf lbj;sf] cj;/df efb| !) / !! ut] lthlut k|ltof]lutf ug]{ lg0fo{ u/]sf] lyof] h;sf] tof/Lsf nfuL sdnf lh=;L= ;+of]hs / lvdfgGb vgfn, lhjg e08f/L ;b:o /x]sf] Ps pk–;ldlt u7g u/LPsf] lyof] . o;} o/L :yfkgf lbj;sf] cj;/df )^% efb| % ut] b]lv /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Frsf] k|;f/0f ;do b}lgs !& 306f agfO{Psf] lyof] . o:t} )^* efb|+ % ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] e/t e08f/L ;+of]hs / l8nf/fd j'9fyf]sL, l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{n, b]j/fh e08f/L ;b:o /x]ssf] $ ;b:oLo lgjf{rg ;ldltsf] u7g u/]sf] lyof] ,kl5 b]j/fh e08f/Ln] ;f] ;ldltaf6 /flhgfdf lbP kl5 pSt ;ldlt # ;b:oLo ag]sf] lyof] . ldlt @)^* efb| !( ut]sf] a}7sn] c;f}h !@ ut] rf}yf] ;fwf/0f ;ef / !% ut] lgjf{rg ;DkGg ug]{ lg0f{o u¥of] . ;f]lx cg';f/ )^* c;f}h !@ ut] t'n;Lk'/ pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf] ;efxndf ;~rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf xl/ k|;fb l/hfnsf] cWoIftf, ;lrj lai0f' axfb'/ s]=l;=sf] ;~rfng / g]kfn k|]z sfpG;Lnsf cWoIf gf/fo0f k|;fb zdf{sf] k|d'v cfltTYotfdf aflif{s rf}yf] ;fwf/0f ;ef z'? ePsf] lyof] . ;fwf/0f ;efdf jrt tyf C0f lhNnf ;xsf/L ;+3 bfËsf cWoIf cGhg s'df/ kf}8]n, sdn ax'p2]Zo ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf t]h axfb'/ sfsL{, hg ;]jf jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf vu k|;fb kf]v|]n, ;xof]uL jrt tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf Joj:yfks l8nf/fd a'9fyf]sL, pGgt s[lif ;xsf/L ;+:yfsf cWoIf gf/fo0f k|;fb e08f/L, ;+:yfsf ;Nnfxsf/ e/t e08f/L, aof]j[4 z]o/ ;b:o dlg/fd vgfn nufotn] z'esfdgf dGtJo lbg' ePsf] lyof] . o;} u/L ul7t lgjf{rg ;ldltsf] 3f]lift lgjf{rg sfo{qmd tflnsf cg';f/ c;f}h !# ut] pd]bjf/L btf{ / bflj lj/f]w, !$ ut] pd]bjf/L lkmtf{ ;lxtsf ;a} k|lqmof k'/f u/L c;f}h !% ut] cfufdL ltg aif]{ sfo{sfnsf nfuL cWoIf z'qm/fh e08f/L, pkfWoIf–9'08L/fh vgfn, ;lrj–b]j/fh e08f/L, sf]iffWoIf–;'o{ k|;fb zdf{ / ;b:ox? s[i0f k|;fb kf]v|]n, hfgsL vgfn, /fdaxfb'/ lh=Pd= /x]sf] & ;b:;Lo ;~rfns ;ldlt / ;+of]hs–lvdfgGb vgfn,;b:o–zl;/fd j'9fyf]sL, ;b:o–gf/fo0f k|;fb e08f/L /x]sf] n]vf ;ldlt lglj{/f]w lgjf{lrt ePsf] 3f]if0ff lgjf{rg ;ldltn] u/]sf] lyof] eg] , )^* c;f}h !^ ut] l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{nosf ;xsf/L clws[t ljgf]b kf}8]nsf] k|d'v cfltTYotfdf kbef/ u|x0f, kbef/ x:tfGt0f / ;ky u|x0f sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . ldlt @)^* c;f}h @) ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] e/t e08f/L al/i7 ;Nnfxsf/, xl/ k|;fb l/hfn, df]xg l;+x jnL, v'lj/fd e08f/L, / dlg/fd vgfn ;Nnfxsf/ /x]sf] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . To;} u/L ;'o{ k|;fb zdf{ ;+of]hs, l8nf/fd j'9fyf]sL ,lgdf /]UdL ;b:o /x]sf] jrt tyf C0f pk–;ldlt, buf{ k|;fb e08f/L-h};L_ ;+of]hs / l8NnL /fh e08f/L, s[i0f k|;fb kf]v|]n ;b:o /x]sf] ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk ;~rfng pk–;ldlt, b]j/fh e08f/L ;+of]hs / lvdfgGb vgfn, tf/f k|;fb kf]v|]n, gf/fo0f k|;fb e08f/L ;b:o / /d]z /]UdL ;b:o ;lrj /x]sf] sd{rf/L 5gf}6 tyf kb k'lt{ pk–;ldlt u7g u/]sf] lyof] . ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltdf /x]sf dWo] xl/ k|;fb l/hfn, df]xg l;+x jnL / v'lj/fd e08f/Ln] ;ldlt ;dIf / ljleGg ldl8of dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ?kdf ;Nnfxsf/ kbaf6 /flhgfdf u/] kl5 ldlt @)^* df3 ^ ut] a;]sf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sn] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] k'gMu7g u/L al/i7 ;Nnfxsf/ e/t e08f/L / O{Zj/L k|;fb e08f/L, dlg/fd vgfn ;Nnfxsf/ /x]sf] ltg ;b:;Lo ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] u7g u/]sf] 5 .                   

       

  ;+:yf åf/f ;~rflnt kl/of]hgfx?sf] ;+lIfKt kl/ro

   xfd|f] kx'Fr ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yf lnld6]8 t'n;Lk'/ bfËsf] cfh eGbf % aif{ cuf8L :yfkgf u/LPsf] lyof] . ;dfhsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts ?kfGt/0fsf If]qdf ;dfhsf lgDg cfo ePsf ;d'bfox? Pstf a4 eO{ cfkm\gf nflu / l;+uf] ;fdflhs ljsf;sf nflu s]lx ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]/ ;+:yfsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . ;+:yfn] 3/]n' b]lv 7'nf pBf]u, s[lif{, hl8a'l6, kz'kfng, jrt tyf C0f, dlg O{Sr]Gh, O{Gwg, ;+rf/, k|]z, ;'k/ dfs]{6, lzIff, :jf:Yo, ko{6g, oftfot nufotsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ p2]Zo /fv]sf] 5 . cfufdL lbgx?df oL ;a} If]qdf qmlds /kdf sfd ub}{ hfg] ;+:yfsf] of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . xfn ;Dd jrt tyf C0f, ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk / /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr kl/of]hgfsf] ?kdf ;~rflnt 5g eg] d}galQsf] pTkfbg ahf/df hfg z'? u/]sf] 5 To;} u/L ljp pTkfbgdf sfd z'? ePsf] 5 . s[lif{ tyf 3/]n' pTkfbgnfO{ ;d]t lgs6 eljZodf kl/ofhgfs} ?k lbg] ;+:yfsf] tTsfnsf] nIo /x]sf] 5 .


                          art tyf C0f

                   

   ;+:yfsf] l8lehg ;xsf/L sfof{nodf ldlt @)^$ >fj0f #! ut] ljlwjt btf{ eP kl5 k|f/lDes -klxnf]_ ;fwf/0f ;ef @)^$ c;f}h !( ut] ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . ;f]lx ;fwf/0f ;efn] g} ;+:yfsf] klxnf] kl/of]hgfsf ?kdf @)^$ k'; ! ut] b]lv jrt tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/ z'? u/]sf] lyof] . k|lt ;b:o ? ! ;o dfl;s jrt / ? !) xhf/ ;Dd ;b:o hdflgdf C0f nuflgaf6 jrt tyf C0fsf] sf/f]jf/ cf/De ul/Psf] lyof] . jrt tyf C0fsf] dfWodaf6 ;b:ox?sf] cfjZos vfFrf] 6fg]{, jrt ug]{ jflgsf] ljsf; u/fpg], pTkfbgd'ns sfo{df shf{ k|jfx u/L ;b:ox?nfO{ pTkfbgd'lv jf Joj;flos agfpb} !) aif{ leq ;a} ;b:ox?nfO{ :j/f]huf/ agfpg] ;+:yfsf] nIf /x]sf] lyof] . xfn ;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf Ps hgf ;b:onfO{ ? % nfv ;Dd shf{ k|jfx u/LPsf] 5 . ;+:yfaf6 shf{ ;'ljwf kfP/ ufO{kfng, e}l;kfng, t/sf/L v]lt, jfv|fkfng, Rofpv]lt, ljp pTkfbg, nufotsf sfo{x? u/L ;b:ox? cfTdlge{/ aGb} hfg' ePsf] 5 . dfl;s jrt, b}lgs jrt, jfn jrt, P]lR5s jrt nufotsf jrt of]hgfx? sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf 5g . jrtdf ^ k|ltzt b]lv !@ k|ltzt ;Dd Jofh lbg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 eg] cf}iflw pkrf/, 3/fo;L vr{, ufO{kfng, e}l;kfng, t/sf/L v]lt, jfv|fkfng, Rofpv]lt, ljp pTkfbg, ;fgf tyf 3/]n' pBf]u / cGo pTkfbgd'ns sfo{sf nfuL !$ k|ltzt b]lv !* k|ltzt Jofh b/df ;xh tl/sfn] shf{ nufgL u/Lb} cfPsf] 5  . %) xhf/ ;Ddsf] shf{df nfO{gdf j:g gkg]{ u/L jrt tyf C0f pk–;ldltsf] lg0f{osf cfwf/df C0f nufgL ug]{ Aoj:yf u/LPsf] 5 eg] ;f] eGbf w]/} /sdsf nflu ;+:yfn] Joj;flos tyf ljlQo kl/of]hgfsf] km/d]6 tof/ u/]sf] 5, sfof{nosf sd{rf/Lsf] ;xof]udf ;b:on] Joj;flos of]hgf tof/ ug'{ kb{5 ;f] cg';f/ g} shf{sf] efvf tf]Sg] tyf Jofh b/ lgwf{/0f ug]{ / ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lg0fo{ kl5 shf{ k|jfx ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ul/Psf] 5 . cfufdL aif{ ;b:ox?nfO{ s'g} klg k|sf/sf] cfly{s sf/f]jf/ ug{sf nfuL cGo ljlQo ;+:yfdf hfg gkg]{ cj:yfsf] >[hgf ug]{ nIf /fv]sf 5f} .

                                             ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk

             

   xfd|f] kx'Fr ax'p2]ZoLo ;xsf/L ;+:yf lnld6]8 lgDg cfo ePsf ls;fg, dhb'/, HofdLx? ldn]/ u7g ul/Psf] ;+:yf xf] . ;fdfGo cfo ePsf JolQmx?af6 k]6«f]nkDk h:tf] 7'nf] nufgLsf] cfjZostf kg]{ kl/of]hgf ;~rfng ug]{ s'/f ;fdfGo s'/f lyPg . æ;fgf] ;fgf] k"FhL Plslqt u/L xfdL s]lx u/f}Æ eGg] gf/f ;+:yfn] to u¥of] o;/L ;b:o ;+u /x]sf] ! xhf/ b]lv # nfv ;Dd /sd ;+sng ubf{ 7'nf] /sd hDdf eof] h;af6 ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk ;~rfng ug{ ;+ej ePsf] xf] . ;b:ox?sf] tTk/tfdf ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDksf] ldlt @)^% >fj0f #) ut] ;+:yf :yfkgfsf] l7s ! aif{ kl5 ljlwjt pb\3f6g u/L sf/f]jf/ z'? u/LPsf] lyof] .

     ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDk t'n;Lk'/ ahf/ b]lv sl/j @ lsnf]ld/ pQ/ tkm{ t'n;Lk'/–;Nofg ;8s v08sf] u0f]zk'/df /x]sf] 5 . k]6«f]nkDkn] l8hn / k]6«f]n cfw'lgs d]l;gaf6 ;]jfu|flxnfO{ b}lgs ;]jf k'¥ofO{ /x]sf] 5 . æk]6«f]lnod kbfy{df z'4tf xfd|f] k|lta4tfÆ xfd|f] d'n gf/f /x]sf] 5 . ;]jfu|flxnfO{ u'0f:tl/o O{Gwg oyfy{ kl/df0f / ;xh Pj+d ;dfg tl/sfn] ljt/0f ug'{ ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDksf] cnUu} laz]iftf xf] . k]6«f]nkDkaf6 k|fKt ePsf] d'gfkmfsf] 7'nf] lx:;f ;fdflhs ;]jfdf g} vlr{P/ ;fdflhs bfloTj k'/f u/]sf 5f} . of] s'g} Ps jf b'O{ hgf ;fx' dxfhgsf] Joj;fo xf]O{g, hgtfsf] txaf6 ;~rflnt Joa;fo ePsf] x'bf hg;d'bfo tyf /fHokIfsf] o;nfO{ x]g]{ b[li6«sf]0fdf klg leGgtf x'g' k5{ eGg] xfd|f] ck]Iff xf] t/ /fHo kIfaf6 ;xsf/LnfO{ x]g]{ ;sf/fTds b[li6«sf]0fsf] cefjdf ;]jfu|fxLx?sf] u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf kfpg] rfxfgfnfO{ ck]Iffs[t ;Daf]wg ;ls/x]sf 5}gf}+ .  cfzf u/f} /fHosf] hgtfn] ;~rfng u/]sf Joj;fo / cGo Joj;fonfO{ x]g]{ lgltdf kl/jt{g x'g] 5 / hgtfn] hgtfs} txaf6 ;]jf kfpg] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt x'g] 5 . hgtfsf] rfxfgf / O{R5fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ s} nfuL ;+:yf n] t'n;Lk'/–;'v]{t ;8s v08 / cldlnof–t'n;Lk'/ ;8s v08df ;xsf/L k]6«f]nkDksf] zfvf lj:tf/ ug]{ nIf /fv]sf] 5 .

 

                                          /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr

                                                

       ;dfhsf] /fhg}lts kl/jt{g ;+u;+u} ;dflhs / cfly{s kl/jt{g x'g cfjZos 5 . olb s'g} Ps dfq kIf cufl8 uof] / jf+sL kIf k5f8L k¥of] eg] d"n'ssf] ;d+u| kl/jt{g ;Dej x'g ;Sb}g . xfd|f] b]zsf] ;Gbe{df klg /fhg}lts kl/jt{gsf] bfhf]df cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ?kfGt/0f k5f8L k/]sf] 5 . hgtfsf] cj:yfdf kl/jt{g Nofpgsf nfuL ;fdflhs tyf ;f:s[lts ?kfGt/0f x'g' cfjZos 7fg]/ hgtf / ;dfh k|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj k'/f ug{sf nfuL g} ;+:yfn] /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr ;+rfngdf NofPsf] xf] . /]l8of] 4f/f pTkflbt vj/, sfo{qmd tyf ;"rgfsf] dfWodaf6 ;dflhs tyf ;f++:s[lts ?kfGt/0fsf If]qdf s]lx ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] xfd|f] ljZjf; /x]sf] 5 .

      ;++:yfsf] bf]>f] ;fwf/0f ;efn] Pkm=Pd= ;~rfng ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnoaf6 ldlt @)^% kmfu'g ^ ut] O{hfht–kq k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . o;/L ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0f k'/f u/L ldlt @)^& efb| % ut] b]lv /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Frsf] k|zf/0f z'? ePsf] lyof] . bfË t'n;Lk'/ gu/kflnsf jf8f g+= ^ 3f]/flx /f]8df ;+:yfsf] sfof{no ;++u} /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Frsf] :6]zg /x]sf] 5 . xfn /]l8of]sf] ljxfg % jh] b]lv /flt !) jh] ;Dd k|To]s lbg !& 306f k|zf/0f  eO{/x]sf]] 5 .

       jf:tjdf of] hg :t/af6 :yfkgf ul/Psf] /]l8of] :6]zg xf] t;y{ d'n'ssf] ;fj{ef]lds cv08tf, /fli6«otf, hflto ;b\efj / ;dfh tyf hgtf k|lt pQ/bflo eP/ hglxtsf/L /]l8of] sfo{qmd pTkfbg / k|;f/0f ug'{ xfd|f] km/s laz]iftf xf] . ;+:yfn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf p2]Zo k'/f ug{ /]l8of] :6]zgn] ;xof]uL e'ldsf lgjf{x ul//x]sf] 5 . xfdLnfO{ ljZjf; 5 :jfledfg / ;d[4 /fi6« lgdf{0f Pj+d ;dfh / hgtf k|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj k'/f ug{ /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fr ;b}j c6n /xg] 5 . /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Fraf6 ljxfg ^M#) jh] vj/ rf}tf/L,ljxfg ( jh] / ;fFem ^M#) jh] xfn vj/, k|To]s 306f vj/ j'n]l6g, k5f8L kfl/Psf ;d'bfo tyf dlxnf, hghflt, jfnjflnsf, blnt, nfO{ dfly p7fpg d2t ldNg] ;fdlu|, /fli6«otf, hgtGq, hglhljsf, ;fj{ef}ldstf, cv08tf, hflto ;b\efj sfod /fVg] / d'n'ssf] k|ult pGd'v sfo{qmdx? b}lgs k|;f/0f eO{/x]sf 5g . /]l8of] xfd|f] kx'Frsf] æhg hgsf] cfjfh,dg dgsf] cfjfh u0ftflGqs g]kfnsf] ;dfj]lz cfjfhÆ :6]zg cfO{ l8 /x]sf 5 eg] æhgtfsf] ;"rgfsf] xsdf hgtfs} kx'FrÆ :yflkt u/fpg] p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . cfufdL aif{ /fli6«o b}lgs klqsf / cfw'lgs ck;]6 k|]z ;~rfng ug]{ nIf /fv]sf 5f} .